These phonemes are part of the phonetic chart that is used to describe the sounds of many languages. They have been established by the International Phonetic Association (IPA). For more information about the IPA and their work visit:
The general principle of the IPA is to provide one symbol for each distinctive speech sound
In English, phonetics describes speech sounds and how they are produced, phonology establishes a set of rules for how to use those speech sounds (pronunciation), and orthography provides visual representation of those sounds (spellings that equate to those pronunciations).
We use the IPA phonetic symbols as a universally recognised mapping system for spelling, even if students then ‘translate’ to their accents after following the monster sounds and blending! Eg the mapping for 'class' will show klɑːs (and the linked phoneme monsters) but I then ‘translate’ klæs ! And I say ænt but a lot of Aussie kids would ‘translate’ the word 'ant' to ˈeənt' Read more
Use the SSP I Can Read Without You (ICRWY) app to teach your child to read before they start school.
Older kids who struggle to read and spell have often been taught using a print to speech approach and may have memorised words or used letter names to spell them. The 'Monster (Spelling) Routine' overcomes the associated issues and stops them from being ‘blinded by the letters’
The Reading Whisperer
BEd Hons. MA Special Educational Needs